Preaspiration

In phonetics, preaspiration (sometimes spelled pre-aspiration)[1] is a period of voicelessness or aspiration preceding the closure of a voiceless obstruent,[2] basically equivalent to an [h]-like sound preceding the obstruent. In other words, when an obstruent is preaspirated, the glottis is opened for some time before the obstruent closure.[3] To mark preaspiration using the International Phonetic Alphabet, the diacritic for regular aspiration, ⟨ʰ⟩, can be placed before the preaspirated consonant. However, Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996) prefer to use a simple cluster notation, e.g. ⟨hk⟩ instead of ⟨ʰk⟩.

Contents

1 Typology
2 Distribution
3 Examples

3.1 English
3.2 Faroese
3.3 Icelandic
3.4 Huautla Mazatec
3.5 Sami languages
3.6 Scottish Gaelic

4 h-clusters
5 See also
6 Notes
7 References

Typology[edit]
Preaspiration is comparatively uncommon across languages of the world,[4] and is claimed by some to not be phonemically contrastive in any language.[5] Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996) note that, at least in the case of Icelandic, preaspirated stops have a longer duration of aspiration than normally aspirated (post-aspirated) stops, comparable to clusters of [h]+consonant in languages with such clusters. As a result, they view preaspiration as purely a distributional feature, indistinguishable phonetically and phonologically from clusters with /h/, and prefer to notate preaspirated stops as clusters, e.g. Icelandic kappi /ˈkʰahpi/ “hero” rather than /ˈkʰaʰpi/.
A distinction is often made between so-called normative and non-normative preaspiration: in a language with normative preaspiration of certain voiceless obstruents, the preaspiration is obligatory even though it is not a distinctive feature; in a language with non-normative preaspiration, the preaspiration can be phonetically structured for those who use it, but it is non-obligatory, and may not appear with all speakers.[6][7] Preaspirated consonants are typically in free variation with spirant-stop clusters, though they may also have a relationship (synchronically and diachronically) with long vowels or [s]-stop clusters.[8]
Preaspiration can take a number of different forms; while the most usual is glottal friction (an [h]-like sound), the precise phonetic quality can be affected by the obstruent or the preceding vowel, becoming for example [ç] after close vowels;[9] other potential realizations include [x][8] and even [f].[10]
Preaspiration is very unstable both syn
BJ야동

David Hayton

David J. Hayton is a UK born judge on the Caribbean Court of Justice. He holds an LLB and LLD from Newcastle University, and MA and LLD from the University of Cambridge.[1] From 1973 to 1987 he was a Fellow at Jesus College, Cambridge. From 1987 to 2005 he worked in the School of Law, King’s College London and was a leading academic, and some time practising English trust lawyer.[2]
Publications[edit]

David Hayton, Paul Mathews, Charles Mitchell, Underhill and Hayton’s Law of Trusts and Trustees (LexisNexis,18th ed, 2010)

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2013)

See also[edit]

English trust law

References[edit]

^ http://www.caribbeancourtofjustice.org/judges_pages/hayton.html
^ http://www.caribbeancourtofjustice.org/judges_pages/hayton.html

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RMS Empress of Japan (1890)

Empress of Japan

History

Name:
Empress of Japan

Owner:
Canadian Pacific Steamship Company

Port of registry:
Canada

Builder:
Naval Construction & Armaments Co, Barrow-in-Furness

Launched:
13 December 1890 by Lady Alice Stanley

Out of service:
1922

Fate:
Scrapped in 1926

General characteristics

Class and type:
Ocean liner

Tonnage:
5,905 tons

Length:
456 ft (139 m)

Beam:
51 ft (16 m)

Propulsion:

Three masts
twin propellers

Speed:
16 knots

Capacity:

160 1st class passengers
40 2nd class
up to 700-steerage passengers

RMS Empress of Japan, also known as the “Queen of the Pacific”, was an ocean liner built in 1890–1891[1] by Naval Construction & Armaments Co, Barrow-in-Furness, England for Canadian Pacific Steamships (CP).[2] This ship – the first of two CP vessels to be named Empress of Japan[3] – regularly traversed the trans-Pacific route between the west coast of Canada and the Far East until 1922.[4]
Over the course of her career, the Empress traversed 4 million kilometres (2.5 million miles).[5] She made 315 Pacific crossings.[4]
In 1891, Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) and the British government reached agreement on a contract for subsidized mail service between Britain and Hong Kong via Canada; and the route began to be serviced by three specially designed ocean liners. Each of these three vessels was given an Imperial name.[6]
The RMS Empress of Japan and her two running mates – the RMS Empress of China and the RMS Empress of India – created a flexible foundation for the CPR trans-Pacific fleet which would ply this route for the next half century.[4]

Contents

1 History

1.1 World War I
1.2 Salvage

2 See also
3 Notes
4 References
5 External links

History[edit]

Empress of Japan enters Vancouver Harbour in 1893.

The Empress of Japan was built by Naval Construction & Armaments Co. (now absorbed into Vickers Armstrongs) at Barrow-in-Furness, England. The 5,905-ton vessel had a length of 455.6 feet (138.9 m), and her beam was 51.2 feet (15.6 m). The white-painted, clipper-bowed ship had two buff-colored funnels with a band of black paint at the top, three lightweight schooner-type masts, and an average speed of 16-knots. This Empress and her two sister-ship Empresses were the first vessels in the Pacific to have twin propellers with reciprocating engines.[7] The ship was designed to provide accommodation for 770 passengers (120 first class, 50 s
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2,2′-Bipyridine

2,2′-Bipyridine

Names

Preferred IUPAC name

2,2′-Bipyridine

Other names
Bipyridyl
Dipyridyl
Bipy
Bpy
Dipy

Identifiers

CAS Number

366-18-7

3D model (Jmol)
Interactive image

ChEBI
CHEBI:30351

ChEMBL
ChEMBL39879 Y

ChemSpider
13867714 Y

ECHA InfoCard
100.006.069

RTECS number
DW1750000

UNII
551W113ZEP

InChI

InChI=1S/C10H8N2/c1-3-7-11-9(5-1)10-6-2-4-8-12-10/h1-8H Y
Key: ROFVEXUMMXZLPA-UHFFFAOYSA-N Y

InChI=1/C10H8N2/c1-3-7-11-9(5-1)10-6-2-4-8-12-10/h1-8H
Key: ROFVEXUMMXZLPA-UHFFFAOYAP

SMILES

c1ccnc(c1)c2ccccn2

Properties

Chemical formula

C10H8N2

Molar mass
156.19 g·mol−1

Melting point
70 to 73 °C (158 to 163 °F; 343 to 346 K)

Boiling point
273 °C (523 °F; 546 K)

Structure

Dipole moment

0 D

Hazards

Main hazards
toxic

R-phrases
25

S-phrases
36/37-45

Related compounds

Related compounds

4,4′-Bipyridine
Pyridine
Phenanthroline
3-Pyridylnicotinamide
Terpyridine
Biphenyl

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

Y verify (what is YN ?)

Infobox references

2,2′-Bipyridine (bipy or bpy, pronounced /ˈbɪpiː/) is an organic compound with the formula (C10H8N2). This colorless solid is an important isomer of the bipyridine family. It is a bidentate chelating ligand, forming complexes with many transition metals. Ruthenium complex and platinum complexes of bipy exhibit intense luminescence, which may have practical applications.

Contents

1 Preparation and general properties
2 Coordination chemistry

2.1 Illustrative complexes
2.2 Tris-bipy complexes

3 References

Preparation and general properties[edit]
It is prepared by the dehydrogenation of pyridine using Raney nickel:[1]

2C5H5N → (C5H4N)2 + H2

Although uncoordinated bipyridine is often drawn with its nitrogen atoms in cis conformation, the lowest energy conformation both in solid state and in solution is in fact coplanar, with nitrogen atoms in trans position.[2] Protonated bipyridine adopts a cis conformation.[3] Upon binding to metal ions the related N,N-heterocyclic ligand phenanthroline does not incur an enthalpic and entropic penalty, and thus its complexes tend to be more stable.
Reflecting the popularity of this ligand design, many substituted variants of bipy have been described.[4][5]
Coordination chemistry[e
BJ모음

Toei 10-000 series

Toei 10-000 series

7th-batch set 10-250, June 2009

Manufacturer
Alna Koki, Hitachi, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Kinki Sharyo

Constructed
1978–1997

Refurbishment
2009–

Number built
224 vehicles (28 sets)

Number in service
56 vehicles (7 sets)

Formation
8 cars per set

Operator(s)
Toei Subway

Depot(s)
Oshima

Line(s) served
Toei Shinjuku Line, Keio Line, Keio Sagamihara Line

Specifications

Car body construction
Stainless steel

Car length
20,000 mm (65 ft 7 in)

Width
2,800 mm (9 ft 2 in)

Doors
4 pairs per side

Maximum speed
120 km/h (75 mph)

Traction system
Chopper control

Acceleration
3.3 km/h/s

Deceleration
4.0 km/h/s (service)
4.5 km/h/s (emergency)

Electric system(s)
1,500 V DC

Current collection method
Overhead wire

Safety system(s)
ATC

Track gauge
1,372 mm (4 ft 6 in)

The Toei 10-000 series (東京都交通局10-000形?) is an electric multiple unit (EMU) train type operated by the Tokyo subway operator Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation (Toei) on the Toei Shinjuku Line in Tokyo, Japan.

Contents

1 Operations
2 Formations
3 Interior
4 History
5 Build details
6 References

Operations[edit]
The 10-000 series operate on the Toei Shinjuku Line between Shinjuku and Motoyawata, and also on inter-running services over the Keio Line from Shinjuku as far as Hashimoto on the Keio Sagamihara Line.[1]
Formations[edit]
As of 1 April 2014[update], the fleet consists of seven eight-car sets (sets 10-220 to 10-280) with six motored (M) cars and two trailer (T) cars, formed as shown below, with car 1 at the Shinjuku end.[1]

Car No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Designation
Tc2
M2′
M1
M2
M1
M2
M1
Tc1

Numbering
10-xx9
10-xx8
10-xx7
10-xx6
10-xx5
10-xx2
10-xx1
10-xx0

“xx” corresponds to the set number.
Cars 3 and 7 are each fitted with two lozenge-type pantographs, and car 5 has one.[1]

Interior[edit]
Passenger accommodation consists of longitudinal bench seating throughout. Wheelchair spaces were added when the original six-car sets were lengthened to eight-car sets.[2]

Interior view of a prototype set in November 2004

Seating in October 2007

Priority seat in October 2007

History[edit]
The prototype set, 10-010, was initially tested on the Toei Mita Line.[3]
Refurbishment commenced in fiscal 2009. This consisted of adding external speakers, replacing the original roller blind destination indicators with LED indicators, mo
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Max Engman

Max Robert Engman

Max Robert Engman (27 September 1945 in Helsinki), is a Finnish historian and translator.
Engman, who 1968-73 was an official at the Finnish national archives in Helsinki, published 1983 a much noticed dissertation about St. Petersburg and Finland. He was appointed professor 1985 in general history at Åbo Akademi.[1]
Engman has in his research foremost studied the Finnish-Russian relations and the European empires[disambiguation needed]. He has also studied constitutional issues and the administration. His contribution as subeditor for Historisk Tidskrift för Finland 1971-82 and the journals editor in chief 1982-2000 is considered as great.
Bibliography[edit]

Mannen i kolboxen, 1979
S:t Petersburg och Finland, 1983
Förvaltningen och utvandringen till Ryssland 1809-1917, 1995
Petersburgska vägar, 1995
Norden och flyttningarna under nya tiden, 1997
Lejonet och dubbelörnen, 2000
Gränsfall – Utväxlingar och gränstrafik på Karelska näset 1918-1920, 2007

Authority control

WorldCat Identities
VIAF: 56624260
ISNI: 0000 0001 1063 8276
SUDOC: 028454448
BNF: cb12028652p (data)

오피와우

Day of Judaism

The day of Judaism is an annual day of Christian-Jewish reflection held on January 17 by the Roman Catholic Church in Italy since 1990.
In 1997, the idea was brought by the interreligious group, Teshuva, from Milan into the 2nd European Ecumenical Assembly (1997) and spread in the Churches of Europe. Since 2001, the Italian Episcopal Conference was joined by the Italian Jewish community in its promotion. In 2005, both sides assumed a ten-year programme of reflection on the Ten Commandments.[1]
In January 2009, the assembly of Italian rabbis announced a boycott of the day of Judaism because of a dispute surrounding the modern usage of the Good Friday Prayer for the Jews in Catholic liturgies. The event was nevertheless held by the Catholic bishops of Italy, who ignored the rabbinical boycott.[2] An agreement to resume participation eventually occurred at a meeting organized by Cardinal Angelo Bagnasco and chief Rabbi Riccardo Di Segni.[3]
In October 2009, Pope Benedict XVI indicated that he would celebrate the following day of Judaism in 2010 by paying a visit to the Great Synagogue of Rome, which has been similarly visited by Pope John Paul II during his pontificate. [4]
References[edit]

^ Day of Judaism in the Churches of Europe, 2009
^ Jews and the Catholic Church. The rabbis of Italy don’t like this Pope
^ Italian Jewish leaders drop Church boycott
^ Pope to visit Rome synagogue on day of dialogue

This Christianity-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

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This Judaism-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

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중국야동

Khorinsky District

Khorinsky District
Хоринский район (Russian)
Хориин аймаг (Buryat)

Location of Khorinsky District in the Buryat Republic

Coordinates: 52°10′N 109°46′E / 52.167°N 109.767°E / 52.167; 109.767Coordinates: 52°10′N 109°46′E / 52.167°N 109.767°E / 52.167; 109.767

Coat of arms

Location

Country
Russia

Federal subject
Republic of Buryatia[1]

Administrative structure (as of July 2013)

Administrative center
selo of Khorinsk[1]

Administrative divisions:[1]

Selsoviets
7

Somons
3

Inhabited localities:[1]

Rural localities
27

Municipal structure (as of October 2015)

Municipally incorporated as
Khorinsky Municipal District[2]

Municipal divisions:[2]

Urban settlements
0

Rural settlements
9

Statistics

Area
13,431 km2 (5,186 sq mi)[3]

Population (2010 Census)
18,467 inhabitants[4]

• Urban
0%

• Rural
100%

Density
1.37/km2 (3.5/sq mi)[5]

Time zone
IRKT (UTC+08:00)[6]

Established
November 1923[3]

Official website

Khorinsky District on WikiCommons

Population of Khorinsky District

2010 Census
18,467[4]

2002 Census
19,367[7]

1989 Census
22,870[8]

1979 Census
21,452[9]

Khorinsky District (Russian: Хори́нский райо́н; Buryat: Хориин аймаг) is an administrative[1] and municipal[2] district (raion), one of the twenty-one in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia. It is located in the center of the republic. The area of the district is 13,431 square kilometers (5,186 sq mi).[3] Its administrative center is the rural locality (a selo) of Khorinsk.[1] As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 18,467, with the population of Khorinsk accounting for 44.1% of that number.[4]

Contents

1 History
2 Administrative and municipal status
3 References

3.1 Notes
3.2 Sources

History[edit]
The district was established in November 1923.[3]
Administrative and municipal status[edit]
Within the framework of administrative divisions, Khorinsky District is one of the twenty-one in the Republic of Buryatia.[1] The district is divided into seven selsoviets and three somons, which comprise twenty-seven rural localities.[1] As a municipal division, the district is incorporated as Khorinsky Municipal District.[2] Its seven selsoviets and three somons are incorporated as nine rural settlements within the municipal district.[2] The selo of Khorinsk s
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Terry Moore (soccer)

Terry Moore

Personal information

Full name
Terence Moore

Date of birth
(1958-06-02) June 2, 1958 (age 58)

Place of birth
Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada

Height
1.85 m (6 ft 1 in)

Playing position
Defender

Senior career*

Years
Team
Apps
(Gls)

Larne

Glentoran

1980–1981
San Diego Sockers
11
(0)

1980–1981
San Diego Sockers (indoor)
12
(2)

1981–1982
Tampa Bay Rowdies
42
(2)

1981–1982
Tampa Bay Rowdies (indoor)
21
(4)

1982–1984
Tulsa Roughnecks
64
(0)

1983–1984
Tulsa Roughnecks (indoor)

National team

1983–1986
Canada
11
(0)

* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only.

Terence “Terry” Moore (born June 2, 1958 in Moncton, New Brunswick) is a former Canadian national soccer team, NASL, and Irish League player.
A steady central defender, Moore lived the first five years of his life in Moncton until his family moved to Northern Ireland. He grew up there and played in the Irish League for Larne and the famous Belfast club Glentoran. Moore made his international debut for Canada against Scotland in 1983, and played in all four games when the Olympic team reached the quarter finals in 1984. He was a member of the 1986 FIFA World Cup squad in Mexico in 1986, but did not play in the finals.
Moore played 118 regular season games in the NASL and 16 in the play offs from 1980 to 1984 for three different teams. He was a member of the Tulsa Roughnecks team that won Soccer Bowl in 1983 in Vancouver over Toronto Blizzard. With his NASL career over, Moore returned to Northern Ireland to play and live. In 2005 he was inducted into the Canadian Soccer Hall of Fame.
External links[edit]

Canadian Soccer Hall of Fame inductee page
NASL stats
CanadaSoccer.com

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Canada squad – 1984 Summer Olympics

1 Lettieri
2 Lenarduzzi
3 Wilson
4 Moore
5 Bridge
6 Ragan
7 Norman
8 Gray
9 Garraway
10 Mitchell
11 Sweeney
12 Vrablic
14 De Luca
15 James
16 Catliff
17 Martin
22 Habermann
Coach: Waiters

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Canada squad – 1986 FIFA World Cup

1 Lettieri
2 Lenarduzzi
3 Wilson (c)
4 Ragan
5 Moore
6 Bridge
7 Valentine
8 Gray
9 Segota
10 Vrablic
11 Sweeney
12 Samuel
13 Pakos
14 Mitchell
15 James
16 Ion
17 Norman
18 Lowery
19 De Luca
20 Miller
21&#160
강남오피

James Bramston (bishop)

The Right Reverend
James Yorke Bramston

Vicar Apostolic of the London District

See
London District

Appointed
4 February 1823 (Coadjutor)

Installed
26 November 1827

Term ended
11 July 1836

Predecessor
William Poynter

Successor
Thomas Griffiths

Other posts
Titular Bishop of Usula

Orders

Ordination
1801

Consecration
29 June 1823
by William Poynter

Personal details

Born
(1763-03-15)15 March 1763
Oundle, Northamptonshire, England

Died
11 July 1836(1836-07-11) (aged 73)
London, England

Nationality
English

Denomination
Roman Catholic

James Yorke Bramston (15 March 1763 – 11 July 1836) was an English prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Vicar Apostolic of the London District from 1827 until his death in 1836.
Born in Oundle, Northamptonshire, Bramston was educated at Oundle School and Lincoln’s Inn, where he studied for nearly four years under the Roman Catholic conveyancer Charles Butler.[1] Following his conversion to Catholicism in 1790, he studied theology at the English College, Lisbon and was ordained a priest in 1801.[2] He then worked as a missionary in the apostolic vicariates of the Midland District and the London District, of which he became vicar general in 1812.[3]
On 4 February 1823, Bramston was appointed Coadjutor Vicar Apostolic of the London District and Titular Bishop of Usula by Pope Pius VII.[2] He received his episcopal consecration on the following 29 June from Bishop William Poynter, with Bishops Peter Collingridge, O.F.M., and Peter Augustine Baines, O.S.B., serving as co-consecrators.[2] He succeeded Bishop Poynter as Vicar Apostolic of the London District upon the latter’s death on 26 November 1827.[2] By 1835, London contained 16 churches, 35 priests, and 150,000 Catholics.[3]
Bramston later died at age 73. His funeral Mass was held at St. Mary’s Church in Moorfields, where he was buried; his heart, however, was interred at St. Edmund’s College in Ware.[4]
References[edit]

^ The Dictionary of National Biography seems to have confused him with his brother, John William Bramston, educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. G. Martin Murphy, ‘Bramston, James Yorke (1763–1836)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, May 2007, accessed 13 Dec 2009.
^ a b c d “Bishop James Yorke Bramston”. Catholic-Hierarchy.org. 
^ a b Brady, William Maziere. The Episcopal Succession in England, Scotland and Ireland, A.D. 1400 to 1875
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